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    Add B to A. B from A leaves C. The difference of A and B is C. Subtract B from A. Multiply A by B. wish は事実と反すること・実現不可能なことを願い、 実際はそうでない ことを表す。 hope は実際にあり得ることに対する願いを表す。 実際どうなるかは分からない 。. Kaye, N. Coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, , 41— The coalescence of two co-flowing axisymmetric turbulent plumes and the resulting single plume flow is modelled and compared to experiments.

    The point of coalescence is defined as the location at which only a single peak appears in the horizontal buoyancy profile, and a prediction is made for its height. The model takes into account the drawing together of the two plumes due to their respective entrainment fields.

    Experiments showed that the model tends to overestimate the coalescence height, though this discrepancy may be partly explained by the sensitivity of the prediction to the entrainment coefficient. A model is then developed to describe the resulting single plume and predict its virtual origin. This prediction and subsequent predictions of flow rate above the merge height compare very well with experimental results. The coalescence of turbulent plumes to form a single plume is a process that occurs in many situations.

    Ventilated enclosures with multiple heat sources, such as work spaces with electronic equipment or occupied lecture theatres, contain turbulent plumes that rise above heat sources and interact. Their interaction will affect the resulting ventilation flow Linden Turbulent plumes rising from smokestacks in close proximity can also interact.

    In this case the rise height of the plumes into a stratified atmosphere will depend on the nature of the interaction. Despite these numerous applications, very little work has been done on the question of how two turbulent plumes coalesce to form a single plume. This paper describes a model for the merging of two turbulent plumes, and for the resulting single plume. PeraGebhart studied the interaction of laminar parallel line plumes, merging to form a single plume.

    They conducted experiments in which the relative strengths of the two plumes and the ratio of the plume source lengths to their separation were varied. They presented a model for this merging process based on the restriction of the entrainment into each plume by the presence of the other.

    They observed that for plumes of significantly different strengths, the weaker plume was deflected considerably more than the stronger plume. Some experiments were also done with axisymmetric plumes. Although no model was presented for how the axisymmetric plumes coalesce, they observed that the interaction was weaker than for line plumes.

    Moses, ZocchiLibchaber presented work focused on the starting cap of laminar plumes, but also briefly examined the coalescence height zm of axisymmetric laminar plumes. They found that zm is given by The main difference between merging laminar and turbulent plumes is that turbulent plumes are independent of the fluid viscosity. However, there are two key points of similarity: laminar axisymmetric plume interaction results in the plumes coalescing further from their sources than for the case of line plumes, and the weaker plume tends to be deflected significantly more than the stronger plume.

    As we discuss below, both of these effects are observed in turbulent plume interaction. Allowing the two Gaussians to grow into each other as the height increases , and to have no other effect on each other, leads to a buoyancy profile function of the form The model of BjornNielsen is similar, except that they were concerned with the velocity profiles. Here the buoyancy rather than the velocity profile is used to judge whether plumes have merged, because the buoyancy is the driving force, and once the driving force can be considered a single entity, it is reasonable to assume that the flow will behave as a single entity.

    For the case of equal turbulent plumes the choice between buoyancy and velocity profiles will make no difference as they will both merge at the same height. This function 2.

    We define the merging height to be the height at which the centreline value first becomes a local maximum — in other words, the height at which there are no longer two distinct peaks. This condition can be written as and, for non-interacting plumes, is easily solved to give In terms of the non-dimensional height one obtains Sections 2 and 3 describe theoretical predictions for the merging height of co-flowing turbulent plumes, and the behaviour of the resulting plume in the far field.

    Experiments have been performed to test the validity of these models. The experiments were carried out using salt plumes in water. The density of the salt solution and the flow rate determined the buoyancy flux.

    These were chosen such that the plumes were close to ideal, i. with small initial volume and momentum fluxes. Corrections for the non-ideal nature of the sources were made by calculating the virtual origin zv using the method described in HuntKaye These corrections were typically of the order of 1 cm, which is considerably less that the typical coalescence heights measured of 10—30cm.

    For the case of unequal plumes, the average of the two virtual origin corrections was used. The difference between the origin corrections for each separate plume was typically less than 0.

    Typical flow rates used in the experiments were between 0. The equal plume experiments were run using the dye attenuation technique in a glass tank approximately 60cm square with a depth of cm. The unequal plume experiments were run using a light-induced fluorescence LIF technique in a 64cm square Perspex tank that was filled to a depth of 15—35 cm. In order to maintain a turbulent plume from the source, a special nozzle was constructed.

    Figure 10 shows a schematic of the nozzle used. The nozzle allowed the creation of a turbulent outlet that would normally be laminar at the flow rates used. Figure 7 of HuntLinden shows the outflow from this nozzle compared to a standard cylindrical tube. The use of the Cooper nozzle meant that the plumes rapidly developed into their self-similar form.

    This can be more clearly seen in figure 13 below, which shows time-averaged buoyancy profiles from an experiment where two equal plumes coalesce. Clearly the profiles are Gaussian in nature well before they coalesce. Experiments were conducted with different initial axial separations from 2.

    Figure 13 shows an example of the profiles for two equal plumes. Figure 14 gives the results of the measurements of the coalescence height. A straight line was fitted through the points. The line is a least-squares fit that was not forced through the origin. A discussion of possible reasons for this discrepancy is presented later. The unequal plume experiments were all conducted at a fixed separation of 5cm. It is clear that the theory consistently over-predicts the measured coalescence height.

    This paper has examined the coalescence of two axisymmetric plumes rising from two sources separated horizontally. The point of coalescence of two co-flowing plumes is defined as the point at which the mean horizontal buoyancy profile of the combined flow has a single maximum.

    Assuming that the plumes are only passively advected by the entrainment field of each other, a theoretical prediction of the merging height was made figure 6. Buoyancy profiles measured using a dye attenuation technique figure 11 and a light-induced fluorescence figure 12 showed that the mean buoyancy profiles behaved in a similar manner to that predicted.

    Various reasons for this discrepancy were suggested, particularly the sensitivity of the merging height to the entrainment coefficient. Once a point of coalescence was established a calculation was made for the flow in the far field after the plumes had merged. For equal plumes the virtual origin of the merged plume is found to be a distance below the sources of 1.

    Again this was tested against experimental data figures 16 to 19 , showing very good agreement with theory. This agreement in the prediction of the plume flow rate justifies the selected definition of the merging height, as the transition from two-plume to single-plume behaviour is observed to occur at this height.

    Measurements of the volume flux show that the two-plume to single-plume transition occurs over a vertical distance of the order of the source separation. Although the model presented shows good qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations and experiment, it has significant limitations that require further work.

    The plumes have the same source height, although many examples of vertical as well as radial separation of plume sources exist.

    For example, two electronic components at different heights on an electronic circuit board will produce plumes with different source heights. A method for adapting this model to account for vertical separation is required.

    Scott, R. Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres. Geophysical Research Letters, 35 24 , L Simple, shallow-water models have been successful in reproducing two key observables in the atmospheres of the giant planets: the formation of robust, and fully turbulent, latitudinal jets and the decrease of the zonal wind amplitude with latitude.

    However, they have to date consistently failed in reproducing the strong prograde superrotating equatorial winds that are often observed on such planets.

    In this paper we show that shallow water models not only can give rise to superrotating winds, but can do so very robustly, provided that the physical process of large-scale energy dissipation by radiative relaxation is taken into account. When energy is removed by linear friction, equatorial superrotation does not develop ; when energy is removed by radiative relaxation, superrotation develops at apparently any deformation radius.

    Despite much attention over several decades, the actual dynamical processes involved in the maintenance of these jets remain controversial, to the extent that there is still debate over whether their origins lie in deep convection throughout the planetary interior [Busse, ], or rather in shallow turbulent motions within the thin atmospheric layer itself [Williams, ].

    Somewhere between these two paradigms lies recent three-dimensional general circulation model studies [Schneider and Lui, ; Yamazaki et al. The latter paradigm is both conceptually and computationally simpler and is based upon well-known and fundamental properties of rotating, stratified flows. As we demonstrate below, the form of the large-scale energy dissipation is a determining factor in the direction of equatorial jets.

    In forced-dissipative calculations with simple models, linear momentum damping is commonly employed because it provides a convenient closure for the total energy in two-dimensional flow. The atmospheres of the gas giants, however, dissipate energy primarily through radiation to space [e. Here, we focus on the effect of radiative or thermal damping and demonstrate that it leads to the spontaneous emergence of equatorial superrotation, even though the small-scale forcing is completely isotropic.

    Our model consists of the shallow water equations for a fluid of mean depth H, on the surface of a sphere of radius a, rotating at constant angular velocity W, and with gravity g.

    The shallow water equations can be viewed as describing the motion of a shallow layer of rotating fluid, or, alternatively, as describing an internal vertical mode of equivalent depth H in a continuously stratified fluid. Equations 1a — 1c are integrated numerically using a standard pseudo-spectral method [Scott and Polvani, ] with a resolution of T equivalent to a x longitude-latitude grid.

    Small-scale hyperdiffusion, nr8x, is included to control the enstrophy at small scales. The equations are integrated for planetary rotations. Our choice of physical parameters is dictated by values typical of the giant planets. In particular, we are interested in the small Ro regime and we verify a posteriori that the zonal jet speeds that arise in our model are comparable to those of the planets O ms1.

    For a given forcing strength 0 the final Ro is determined by trad. This leaves LD as the main free parameter. The prominent feature, and the main result of the paper, is the strong superrotating positive equatorial jet, clearly visible in all cases.

    In all cases, an alternating pattern of weaker jets is also apparent, and extends through the midlatitudes. We emphasize that these zonal jets and their structure arise spontaneously and despite the fact that the forcing is purely isotropic in space and time: there is no forcing in the zonal mean and there is no asymmetry in the forcing that might fix the sign of the jet at the equator.

    While our model is highly idealized , we have nevertheless selected parameters that correspond, approximately, to the Jovian atmosphere. As far as we are aware, this is the first numerical integration with physically relevant parameters in rotating shallow water to produce the observed sign of the equatorial jet.

    In conclusion, we have shown that a simple shallow water model, with random isotropic forcing and a large-scale energy dissipation that crudely represents energy loss through radiation, is able to capture several of the main features of the atmospheres of the giant gas planets, specifically: i a turbulent flow dominated by strong, steady zonal jets; ii a decrease in jet amplitude with latitude; iii small scale filaments and vortices similar to observed cloud top features; and, most importantly, iv an equatorial jet that is superrotating.

    Further, we note that equatorial super-rotation is a stable feature of this model, whose persistence does not require continued thermal damping: when the thermal damping is turned off, the equatorial jets continue to intensify in cases where the forcing remains present or remain steady in cases where the forcing is also turned off. Given that they are so robust, why then have super-rotating equatorial jets not been previously obtained in shallow water models?

    One possible reason is that in rotating shallow water anticyclones are in general more stable than cyclones [Polvani et al. Although difficult to diagnose in a fully turbulent flow, this asymmetry, coupled with the b-drift of anticyclones toward low latitudes, may account for an accumulation of anticyclonic shear, and hence a subrotating jet at the equator. Linear friction acts equally on both cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity and so does not alter this asymmetry.

    In contrast it can be shown that, under certain conditions, radiative relaxation can damp anticyclones at a faster rate than cyclones full details will be presented in a longer article , and may therefore offset the asymmetry.

    However, other mechanisms may also be relevant in the selection of equatorial superrotation, including the latitudinal dependence of the angular momentum changes arising from thermal damping, and the relative effects of thermal and frictional damping on mean flow changes induced by momentum flux convergences due to equatorial waves [Andrews and McIntyre, ].

    Work is currently underway towards a deeper understanding of the precise mechanisms whereby the superrotation is generated. Bordoni, S. Regime Transitions of Steady and Time-Dependent Hadley Circulations: Comparison of Axisymmetric and Eddy-Permitting Simulations. Journal Of The Atmospheric Sciences, 67 5 , — Steady-state and time-dependent Hadley circulations are investigated with an idealized dry GCM, in which thermal forcing is represented as relaxation of temperatures toward a radiative-equilibrium state.

    The latitude f0 of maximum radiative-equilibrium temperature is progressively displaced off the equator or varied in time to study how the Hadley circulation responds to seasonally varying forcing; axisymmetric simulations are compared with eddy-permitting simulations. In axisymmetric steady-state simulations, the Hadley circulations for all f0 approach the nearly inviscid, angular-momentum-conserving limit, despite the presence of finite vertical diffusion of momentum and dry static energy.

    In contrast, in corresponding eddy-permitting simulations, the Hadley circulations undergo a regime transition as f0 is increased , from an equinox regime small f0 in which eddy momentum fluxes strongly influence both Hadley cells to a solstice regime large f0 in which the cross-equatorial winter Hadley cell more closely approaches the angular-momentum-conserving limit.

    In axisymmetric time-dependent simulations, the Hadley cells undergo transitions between a linear equinox regime and a nonlinear, nearly angular-momentum-conserving solstice regime.

    Unlike in the eddy- permitting simulations, time tendencies of the zonal wind play a role in the dynamics of the transitions in the axisymmetric simulation. Nonetheless, the axisymmetric transitions are similar to those in the eddy-permitting simulations in that the role of the nonlinear mean momentum flux divergence in the zonal momentum budget shifts from marginal in the equinox regime to dominant in the solstice regime.

    As in the eddy-permitting simulations, a mean-flow feedback—involving the upper-level zonal winds, the lower-level temperature gradient, and the poleward boundary of the cross-equatorial Hadley cell— makes it possible for the circulation fields to change at the transition more rapidly than can be explained by the steady-state response to the thermal forcing.

    However, the regime transitions in the axisymmetric simulations are less sharp than those in the eddy-permitting simulations because eddy—mean flow feedbacks in the eddy-permitting simulations additionally sharpen the transitions. Monsoons are generally viewed as regionally concentrated, thermally direct overturning circulations in the latitude—height plane, with ascending motion in the summer hemisphere subtropics and descending motion in the winter hemisphere Newell et al.

    These monsoonal circulations dominate the solstitial zonally averaged Hadley circulation, which is characterized by a strong and broad cross-equatorial winter cell and a very weak and narrow summer cell.

    Most theories of the dynamics of these circulations have been developed in the context of axisymmetric models of the Hadley circulation in which the upper branches of the circulation are assumed to be nearly inviscid and angular-momentum-conserving e. For instance, Plumb and Hou showed that axisymmetriccirculations driven by a localized off-equatorial thermal forcing undergo transitions from a linear, viscous regime to a nonlinear, angular-momentum-conserving regime beyond a threshold forcing value; they suggested that this threshold behavior may account for the rapid onset of monsoons.

    All of these studies, however, have postulated the existence of a localized subtropical heating either provided by imposed surface temperature anomalies or a subtropical continent as necessary for monsoon development and have neglected the interaction between large-scale eddies and tropical circulations.

    But, large-scale eddies of midlatitude origin may in fact play an important role in the dynamics of Hadley and monsoonal circulations. Through idealized GCM experiments, Walker and Schneider found that over a wide range of climates, including earthlike climates, the strength of a Hadley cell driven by hemispherically symmetric thermal forcing is strongly influenced by eddy momentum fluxes of extratropical origin, so the scalings that nearly inviscid axisymmetric theory gives for the extent and strength do not apply.

    The idealized GCM is the same hydrostatic primitive-equation model as in SB08, where more details can be found. The model is a spectral-transform model, run in axisymmetric configuration truncated at zonal wave-number zero with T42 horizontal resolution and 30 unequally spaced sigma levels in the vertical.

    Radiative forcing is provided by Newtonian relaxation toward a radiative-equilibrium state of a semigray atmosphere, which is axisymmetric and statically unstable in the lower troposphere. The radiative-equilibrium surface temperature varies with latitude as where f0 is the latitude at which Tse is maximal, and Dh 5 This implies that a meridional circulation is to be expected for all values of f0 Plumb and Hou It also differs from that used in Fang and Tung in that it features larger seasonal excursions of the Tse maximum away from the equator.

    Steady-state simulations were conducted with fixed values of f ranging from 08 vernal equinox to For comparison with the results from these steady-state axisymmetric simulations, in section 3 we also show results from the statistically steady states of the eddy-permitting simulations in SB The averages shown are surface-pressure-weighted sigma-coordinate averages over longitude and time over simulated days in the axisymmetric and eddy-permitting simulations.

    The time-dependent simulation of seasonal cycles was started from the equinox steady state f0 5 08 and was run for five years. ちなみに一条家の「桃華堂文庫」は写本が存在するといわれるが、現在は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加.

    Incidentally , although its copy is said to exist somewhere , the 'Tokado Bunko Library ' of the Ichijo family is now lost. もともと天守のなかった城、存在したが 不明 な城に、建てられた天守のことで ある 。 例文帳に追加. It refers to Tenshu constructed in castles where no Tenshu had existed or where Tenshu had existed but were missing. 臨戦用の陣城と推定されており、恒久的な城郭施設の存在は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加. It is supposed that the castle was a temporary fort provided for fighting , and it is unclear whether permanent castle facilities were provided there.

    正面中央には渦巻文が描かれているが、これが何を象徴しているのかはまだ 不明である 。 例文帳に追加. What the Uzumaki-mon pattern drawn in the center symbolizes has not been known. 尺八の吹奏人口についての本格的な調査はされておらず、正確な人口は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加.

    As a full-scale survey of the number of shakuhachi players has not been carried out , the exact number is unknown. 白飯と副食という組み合わせの弁当についても、その起源は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加. The origin of bento with white rice and accompanying dishes is not clear , either. School weblio スクウェブ・スクリオ.

    英和和英辞典 英語例文 英語類語 共起表現 英単語帳 英語力診断 英語翻訳 オンライン英会話 スピーキングテスト 優待 英語の質問箱. 例文検索の条件設定 「カテゴリ」「情報源」を複数指定しての検索が可能になりました。( プレミアム会員 限定) カテゴリ ビジネス 6 法律 8 金融 10 コンピュータ・IT 13 日常 0 ことわざ・名言 0.

    不適切な検索結果を除外する 不適切な検索結果を除外しない セーフサーチ について. 意味 例文 件. 不明である の部分一致の例文一覧と使い方 該当件数 : 件. 実際に木津川をこの6隻を主力として封鎖できたかも 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is also uncertain whether the blockade of the Kizu-gawa River was really possible with these six ships as main force. 何故、政権を改新したり、改革したりすることができたのか全く 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 From the article , it 's completely unknown as to why the government was reformed or was innovated.

    しかし、当時朝廷内で常時文字による記録がとられていたかどうかは 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 However , it is not clear whether characters were always used for recording in the Imperial Court in those days. 歌人としての経歴は 不明 であり、「後撰和歌集」に4首が残るのみで ある 。 例文帳に追加 His career as a waka poet is not clear , and only four poems by him were left in ' Gosen Wakashu. 詳細は 不明 だが守護代小笠原氏との間で確執が生じる事情があったようで ある 。 例文帳に追加 The detailed reasons are unknown , however , it seems there were circumstances that caused conflicts within the shugodai Ogasawara clan.

    完成以前に死去したのか、それとも別の理由で外れたものなのかは 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is not known whether he died before the compilation of Nihon Koki was completed or his name was not included due to any other reason.

    母は所領・姻戚関係などから稲葉氏息女ではないかと見られているが、 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 The shoryo territory and matrimonial relation of his mother suggest that she may have been a daughter of the Inaba clan , but it remains unknown. 詳細な経歴は 不明である が山名氏に代々仕えていた重臣であったという。 例文帳に追加 His detailed profile is unknown , but it is said that he was a senior vassal of the Yamana clan.

    が、信長公記では4万5千となっており、正確な実数は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 According to Shincho Koki Biography of the Warlord Nobunaga ODA on the other hand , Yoshimoto 's territory produced only a 45 , koku crop yield , therefore the real figures are unknown. どのような経緯で森蘭丸の具足とされるようになったのかは 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is not clear how the armor became to be regarded as Ranmaru MORI ' s. 没年は 不明である が、『尊卑分脈』には85歳で卒去したと記されている。 例文帳に追加 His age at death is unknown ; however , the " Sonpi Bunmyaku " a Japanese genealogical text determined that he died at the age of それどころか実は取り調べが行われたかどうかすら確かな史料からは確認できず 不明 なので ある 。 例文帳に追加 Moreover , it is unclear whether the interrogation itself was conducted , unable to confirm from documents.

    これが原文なのか、続く文章は幕府をはばかって田村家で消したのか、真相は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is also unclear whether it is the original or something that followed was deleted by the Tamura family being in awe of bakufu. 諸系図では下総国千葉郡にて千葉小次郎と称したと言うが、 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 Although several genealogies show that he called himself Kojiro CHIBA in Chiba County , Shimousa Province , the truth is unknown.

    宿那麻呂はこの後とって返して吹負の下で戦ったが、安麻呂のその後の行動は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 Although Yasumaro returned immediately and fought under Fukei, it is unknown what happened to Tasumaro after that. 志我麻呂についての記録はこれで終わり、いつ死んだかも 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 The entry detailing his promotion is the final article to mention Shigamaro, so even the date on which he died remains unknown. 強階層受信機のソフトウェア更新の知らせを受けた場合でも、更新方法が 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 To solve such a problem that an update method is unknown even when a notice of software update of a strong hierarchy receiver is received.

    画面下部に「思堪」の朱印があり、これが画家名と思われるが、その伝記等は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 There is a red seal of 'Shitan' on the under side of picture , which seems to be the name of the painter , but his life is unknown. 様々な陰謀説が議論されており実情は 不明である (豊臣秀次参照)。 例文帳に追加 The truth of the fact , however , is not known as there were various conspiracy theories refer to the section on Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI. それらは、策伝が直接引用したのか、巷間に伝わっていたものを採用したものか 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is unknown whether Sakuden quoted those stories or just chose them from the ones widely known among the people.

    この両者が、それぞれ尾張徳川家・蜂須賀家に入る以前の伝来は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 The whereabouts of these before they came into the possession of the Owari-Tokugawa family and Hachisuka family respectively are unknown. 小墾田猪手(おはりたのいて、生没年 不明 )は、日本の飛鳥時代の人物で ある 。 例文帳に追加 OHARITA no Ite date of birth and death unknown lived during Japan 's Asuka period.

    秦綱手(はだのつなて、生年 不明 -天武天皇9年(年)5月21日)は、日本の飛鳥時代の人物で ある 。 例文帳に追加 HADA no Tsunate date of birth unknown - May 21 , lived in the Asuka period of Japan. 法定離婚原因の一例は、配偶者の生死が2年以上 不明 なことで ある 。 例文帳に追加 One example of a legal cause of divorce is that whether your partner is dead or alive has been unclear for two or more years.

    例文帳に追加 I often find it difficult to follow him [ to understand what he says ], because his pronunciation is not clear [ distinct , articulate ]. かつて、水路のシステムで ある と思われていた火星の 不明 瞭な表面の特徴 例文帳に追加 an indistinct surface feature of Mars once thought to be a system of channels - 日本語WordNet.

    異形成母斑は比較的大きいことが多く、その辺縁部は 不明 瞭で ある 。 例文帳に追加 a dysplastic nevus is often larger with borders that are not easy to see. このような有機物の蓄積が,処理水中の大腸菌の濃度を増やすかどうかは 不明 確で ある 。 例文帳に追加 It is unclear if such organic buildup will increase coliform concentrations in treated waters.

    石灰岩反応器が,より濃厚な溶液をどれほどよく中和するかは同じく 不明 確で ある 。 例文帳に追加 It is likewise unclear how well limestone reactors will neutralize more highly concentrated solutions. 石灰岩反応器が,高濃度の溶液をどれほどよく中和するかは同じく 不明 確で ある 。 例文帳に追加 It is likewise unclear how well limestone reactors will neutralize more highly concentrated solutions. 科学者達は新薬を発見し続けていますから、意識 不明 の人にも希望は常に ある のです。 例文帳に追加 Scientists have been discovering new drugs , so there is always hope for the unconscious person.

    三 航空機内に ある 者の死亡(国土交通省令で定めるものを除く。)又は行方 不明 例文帳に追加 iii Death except those specified in Ordinances of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or disappearance of any person on board the aircraft - 日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム.

    シンボルがサイズを持たない場合、またはサイズが 不明 な場合、このメンバは 0 で ある 。 例文帳に追加 This member holds zero if the symbol has no size or an unknown size.

    周文自身が実際に描いたという作品は現存しておらず、画風の実態については 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 However , works of art which Shubun actually painted do not exist and therefore , his painting style is not clear.

    開基は役小角(えんのおづぬ、役行者)と伝えるが詳細は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is said to have been founded by EN no Ozunu EN no Gyoja A semi-legendary holy man noted for his practice of mountain asceticism during the second half of the 7 century , but the details aren 't known.

    文永9年(年)、70歳の年の奥書が一書に残るより後、仙覚の記事は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 He left an Okugaki in one book in at the age of 70 but any accounts of Sengaku after that are unconfirmed. 通常、陰流開祖は愛洲久忠とされており猿御前との関係は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 Usually , Hisatada AISU is considered as the founder of Kage-ryu school , but how Saru no Gozen was related to Kage-ryu school has not been discovered.

    ちなみに一条家の「桃華堂文庫」は写本が存在するといわれるが、現在は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 Incidentally , although its copy is said to exist somewhere , the 'Tokado Bunko Library ' of the Ichijo family is now lost.

    もともと天守のなかった城、存在したが 不明 な城に、建てられた天守のことで ある 。 例文帳に追加 It refers to Tenshu constructed in castles where no Tenshu had existed or where Tenshu had existed but were missing. 臨戦用の陣城と推定されており、恒久的な城郭施設の存在は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 It is supposed that the castle was a temporary fort provided for fighting , and it is unclear whether permanent castle facilities were provided there.

    正面中央には渦巻文が描かれているが、これが何を象徴しているのかはまだ 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 What the Uzumaki-mon pattern drawn in the center symbolizes has not been known. 尺八の吹奏人口についての本格的な調査はされておらず、正確な人口は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 As a full-scale survey of the number of shakuhachi players has not been carried out , the exact number is unknown. 白飯と副食という組み合わせの弁当についても、その起源は 不明である 。 例文帳に追加 The origin of bento with white rice and accompanying dishes is not clear , either.

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    【英語の論文】基礎と書き方のコツ また、英語の文をつなぐ方法をたくさんしっていると、文章が単調になるのも防ぐ事ができます。 接続詞、接続副詞だけでなく、科学論文むきの動詞を使った文も集めました。 英語論文で見られる良くない表現. この文書では,大学院生が最初の英語論文を書く際にありがちな,良くない英語表現をまとめています. set up: 「落とし入れる,嵌める」という意味があるせいか,あまり使われないような気がする.  · 未だにガラケーって英語でなんて言うの? なんのために作られたのかまだ分かっていないって英語でなんて言うの? 未だに劣ってないって英語でなんて言うの? 未だに雷が怖いって英語でなんて言うの? 当たり障りのない会話って英語でなんて言うの? 英語が苦手な研究者(私も)は英借文をすることが多いと思いますが、丸ごとコピペはさすがに止めましょう。自分の英語力向上にもつながりません。 The second reviewer is putting the light on something totally inaccurate in research - the problem of plagiarism. This is a very serious problem  · あるジャーナルに投稿した論文が、私の過去の出版論文と類似していると判断されてしまいました。編集者によると、内容の20%が剽窃だということで、「この決定は覆せない」というレターとともにリジェクトが通告されました。しかし私は、背景に関する部分を以前の出版物からコピーし 論文でよく使用される表現を覚えておくと、英語論文も書きやすくなる。. 以下に、英語論文で多用される表現を論文の構成に従って各セクションごとにまとめる。. 1. Abstract. 本論文では、~について述べる。. In this paper, we discuss 本研究の目的は、~で  · 英語の書類や資料で "N/A" という略語を目にしたことはありますか?この "N/A" には "not applicable" と "not available" という2つの意味があります。このコラムでは実際の使い方を分かりやすく解説します!英語で書類に記入する際にも覚えておくと役に立ちますよ! 未だ不明である の部分一致の例文一覧と使い方. 該当件数: 6 件. 例文. しかし、詳細は 未だ に 不明 で ある 。. 例文帳に追加. However, the details of his intentions have not been clarified yet. - Wikipedia日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス. この男性の正体は 未だ に 不明 で  · 不明は英語で Unclear/ Uncertainと言います。 以下に、例文を挙げておきます。参考にしてみてください。 1) The cause of the fire is still unknown. この火事の原因は未だ不明 2) I am still unclear on whether or not I got the job. この仕事に採用されたのかどうか未だよくわからない 政治資金について 不明 朗な 点 が 多い. 例文帳に追加. There are many questionable points about political funding. - 研究社 新和英中辞典. 蕭白の生涯については資料が少なく 不明な点が多い 。. 例文帳に追加. Very few documents about the life of Shohaku are available and much remains unknown
    民泊 隣の敷地 工事, ジャガータウン 昔
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